Our vascular system is important as it circulates blood to other parts of the body through arteries and veins. Sometimes, this flow is interrupted because of plaque that is built with fat and cholesterol in the body. Vascular diseases are a growing pandemic due to increasing diabetes and obesity. It affects the circulatory system outside the heart. If you are also experiencing severe pain and discomfort in any of your body parts, then there may be vascular disease behind it.
Various Types of Vascular Diseases
Vascular disease can occur anywhere in the body along with other diseases like heart problems and diabetes. People having blood pressure issues, obesity, and living a sedentary lifestyle can also lead to vascular disease. It can strike anyone and at any age. The symptoms appear until it is life-threatening. It is important to recognize the signs of this disease to get timely treatment. In this article, let us find out the various types of vascular diseases and their symptoms.
Coronary Artery Disease
This disease is caused by plaque build in the body. Plaque is made of cholesterol deposits. It narrows the arteries disrupting the blood flow. This condition is also known as atherosclerosis. The signs of coronary artery disease are severe chest pain, arm pain (particularly on the left side), shortness of breath, and sweating. Women have less typical symptoms such as neck pain, jaw pain, nausea, and vomiting. Sometimes, coronary heart disease does not have any symptoms.
Your healthcare provider will ask you to conduct certain tests to confirm the disease. The treatment of coronary artery disease includes angioplasty or stent placement. A tiny balloon is inflated to widen the artery which improves the blood flow. Stents are small wire mesh that helps the artery to remain open.
Cerebrovascular diseases refer to the group of diseases that affect the brain nerves. The blood vessels become narrow which can lead to clotting or thrombosis, artery blockage, or vessel rupture also known as hemorrhage. People of every age and gender can have the risk of cerebrovascular disease.
The blood clot usually happens in the areas where blood vessels are narrower. Blood clots can also travel from your heart to the brain which is known as embolism. Blood vessel rupture can occur due to high blood pressure. Other reasons for this disease may be structural changes in your brain, plaque formation, trauma, or physical injury to the brain.
Peripheral Vascular Disease
Peripheral vascular disease is a disease that affects blood flow in the arms and legs. People with this disease may experience pain in the legs and arms which can increase while walking and exercising. There is no particular cure for this disease. Lifestyle changes and some medicines may reduce the symptoms. Such treatments and therapies can also help to lower the risk of other vascular diseases like coronary heart disease.
Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm
Thoracic refers to the part of the aorta that runs through the chest. It is a weakened area in the main artery of the chest. The body’s main artery is the aorta. Bulging in the aorta can lead to bursting and dissection. This can be life-threatening. Such type of condition is most common in people with high cholesterol, high blood pressure issues, and smokers.
The symptoms may include, pain in the chest, and back, shortness of breath or cough, hoarseness, trouble swallowing, or pain while swallowing. The treatment may include placing a stent or repairing or removal of aneurysm. A vascular surgeon may also recommend surgery in some cases.
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm is a disease that causes swelling in the vessel that carries blood from the heart to the abdomen. The symptoms may include a pulsating feeling in the stomach especially near the belly button. It can be felt only when you touch that area. Some patients may also experience persistent back and abdominal pain.
The topmost risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm is smoking. This disease is more common in men than women. Your family history can also be the reason behind Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. High blood pressure and old age can also increase the risk. The treatment includes repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. A vascular surgeon will insert a thin flexible tube known as a catheter through the groin area and guide it to the aorta.
Genitourinary Vascular Disease
Genitourinary vascular disease includes congenital abnormalities and disorders like cancer, trauma, infection, and inflammation. This disease is mainly due to loss of tissue structure. Common symptoms of this disease are frequent or urgent urination, leaking or dribbling urine, pain or burning sensation while urinating, pain in the pelvic area, and a strong or foul smell of urine.
The treatment includes a healthy lifestyle, increased water intake, and reduced stress. Doctors also prescribe antibiotics and other medications in some cases.
Renal Vascular Disease
Renal vascular disease affects the blood flow into and out of the kidneys. It may cause damage to the kidney and may lead to kidney failure if not treated for long. The artery that supplies blood to the kidney has a clot causing narrowing and blockage. The symptoms of this disease are pale or blush skin, lack of hair in legs and toenail growth, sores on toes, feet, and legs, weak pulses, and gangrene.
The treatment for renal vascular disease is lifestyle changes, medication, and a procedure to restore blood in the kidney. There are surgical procedures like angioplasty, open surgery, and placement of stents for the treatment of renal vascular disease.
Lymphatic Vascular Disease
In this disease, the lymphatic system of our body is affected. The network of tissues, vessels, and organs that moves a specific fluid called lymph is blocked and prevented from circulating normally. The most common lymphatic disease is Lymphedema which is a swelling of a body part. The lymphatic fluid is built up in the tissue. It commonly occurs in the arms and legs but can also affect other parts of the body.
Your doctor will prescribe treatment depending on the diagnosis, stages of lymphedema, and related health problems. Common treatments include lymphatic therapies, compression bandaging, therapeutic exercise, diet, medicine, and surgery.
So, now you must understand the types of vascular diseases, their symptoms, and treatments. If you are undergoing any of the symptoms mentioned in this article, do not ignore them. Consult your health care provider or a vascular surgeon in Delhi to get it diagnosed early. Timely treatment will save you from serious health problems.